METU Tumulus I
Tumulus I is located west of the road that leads to Atatürk Orman Çiftliği from Söğütözü and was excavated by METU in 1967 (Buluç, S. 1979:16-18). It stands 7 m above the road and has a diameter of 60 m.
The Burial Chamber:The chamber is located in a pit dug into the center of the tumulus; the pit measures 3.00 x 4.50 m, the wooden chamber itself measures 2.00 x 4.50 m. the space between the chamber walls and the pit is filled with stones, the height of the chamber is calculated to be approximately 1.70 m.
Finds:The collapse of the ceiling smashed most of the grave goods left in the chamber.Three bronze vessels, four jars with rounded bodies and short necks, a bowl with omphalos base (phiale) and in front of the eastern wall 8 fibulae, fragments belonging to a belt and some skeletal remains were found in the chamber. Analyses suggested that the skeleton probably belongs to a 30-35 year old women.
Based on vessels with omphalos bases and fibulae types, Tumulus I is dated to the beginning of 7th century BC and is contemporary withTumulus MM at Gordion (Mellink, M.J. 1981: 263 ff; Kohler, E.L., 1995: 191 ff).
METU Tumulus II
Among the group of tumuli in the Beştepeler neighborhood was the well-preservedTumulus II which was excavated by METU in 1967 (Buluç, S. 1979: 19-23). It measures 10 m in diameter and 5 m in height.
The Burial Chamber:The wooden chamber measured 3.00 x 2.80 m. constructed in a pit dug into virgin soil.The irregular pit measures 5.00 x 5.40 m. and 5.00 x 5.70 m (Fig. II-1, II-2).
The stone fill over the ceiling of the burial chamber consists of quite large pieces of stone of measuring about 30-40 cm (Fig. II-1, II-3). As could be understood from the walls of the chamber, which were in good condition at the three corners, the height must have been 1.50 m.The ceiling is thought to be constructed of one or two lines of horizontal beams of 30-35 cm. thick.
The cavity between chamber walls and the pit was filled first with stones of about 70 cm. in thickness, then with soil and finally again with stones in order to block the rainwater entering the chamber.
The Çalmaboğaz technique had been applied at the corner joints of the chamber (Figure II-4). Walls were constructed by projecting timber beams of 20 cm. in thickness over each other.These beams had further been joined by vertical wooden members.Together with the logs, the untreated side of which was placed facing downward to form a base for the finishing, the thickness of the floor adds up to 35 cm.
Finds:The southern wall of the chamber slid forward under the pressure of the stone filling and covered the three vessels with omphalos bases (Figure II-3). Six grey pots with two handles and six globular pots were recovered from near the stone rubble and restored. Another vessel with an omphalos base was found in the northeast corner. 30 cm from the eastern wall, a line of 4 cm thick iron fragments and in the middle of this line two vessels with omphalos bases were recovered (Buluç, S. 1979: 24).
Skeletal remains made it possible to determine that the body was laid in east-west orientation, in front of the northern wall. A thick layer of a felt-like material found in here suggests that the body might have been left on woolen material, perhaps a bed or a piece of cloth.
On the basis of fibulae types,Tumulus II has been dated to the first quarter of 7th century BC, slightly later than Tumulus MM at Gordion (Mellink, M.J. 1981: 263 ff; Kohler, E.L. 1995: 191 ff).